lln.ani {animation}R Documentation

Demonstration of Law of Large Numbers

Description

This function plots the sample mean as the sample size grows to check whether the sample mean approaches to the population mean.

Usage

lln.ani(FUN = rnorm, mu = 0, np = 30, pch = 20, col.poly = "bisque", col.mu = "gray", 
    ...)

Arguments

FUN

a function to generate random numbers from a certain distribution: function(n, mu)

mu

population mean; passed to FUN

np

times for sampling from a distribution (not the sample size!); to examine the behaviour of the sample mean, we need more times of sampling to get a series of mean values

pch

symbols for points; see Details

col.poly

the color of the polygon to annotate the range of sample means

col.mu

the color of the horizontal line which denotes the population mean

...

other arguments passed to points

Details

np points are plotted to denote the distribution of the sample mean; we will observe that the range of the sample mean just becomes smaller and smaller as the sample size increases and ultimately there will be an obvious trend that the sample mean converges to the population mean mu.

The parameter nmax in ani.options means the maximum sample size.

Value

None (invisible NULL).

Note

The argument pch will influence the speed of plotting, and for a very large sample size (say, 300), it is suggested that this argument be specified as '.'.

Author(s)

Yihui Xie

References

Examples at https://yihui.name/animation/example/lln-ani/


[Package animation version 2.5 Index]